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Number of land-dwelling animals killed in the world by the meat, dairy and egg industries, since you opened this webpage.
This counter does not include the billions of water-dwelling animals killed annually.
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“…the moment a portion of virgin land has a fence put around it to contain animals, man [sic] has stepped onto the first rung of the ladder of intensive farming.”

Sydney Jennings, quoted in Ruth Harrison, 1964, Animal Machines: The New Factory Farming Industry

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“The monopolizing eater of animal flesh ... destroy[s] his constitution by devouring an acre at a meal”

Percy Bysshe Shelley, 1813, A Vindication of Natural Diet

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“the world ... sometimes seems to me like one mighty slaughterhouse ... one vast scene of destruction to all moral sensibility, and all sympathy with the woes of those around us”

William A. Alcott, 1848, Vegetable Diet

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“man [sic] suppresses in himself, unnecessarily, the highest spiritual capacity – that of sympathy and pity toward living creatures”

Leo Tolstoy, 1909, “The First Step”, preface to Howard Williams The Ethics of Diet

“Oh this killing, killing, killing – this awful, never-stopping, never-ending, worldwide butchery! What a world! “Ideal”? – and “perfect”? – and “ all-wise”? – Certainly – to tigers, and highwaymen, and people who are sound asleep; but to everybody else it is simply monstrous

J. Howard Moore, 1907, The New Ethics

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Speciesism: 'A failure in attitude or practice, to accord any nonhuman being equal consideration and respect'

Joan Dunayer, 2004, Speciesism


From this page you can access an interdisciplinary bibliography on veganism, so far comprising over 1800 references. By clicking on one of the links below, you can choose to browse through the entire bibliography, or follow particular interests by clicking on 1 of 29 keywords or phrases. Many sources are relevant to two or more keywords or phrases, and therefore appear in more than one place. Click here to find explanations of our keywords & phrases.

NEW: Dave of Darlington's Database of over 1700 references related to vegan-organic growing

Dave of Darlington was a vegan-organic grower in Durham who made a life work of studying the benefits of animal free agriculture in the wider sense of its practice and implications for world peace and ecology. As part of this he compiled many references and related information. Dave, a gentle, modest man died in May 2008. Dave's database is available as an Excel spreadsheet in 2007 or 2003 formats or as a webpage. Please download this pdf file to see explanatory notes of the database fields.

Phil Sleigh of the Vegan-Organic Network  kindly took over responsibility for Dave's database and has converted it into the spreadsheet versions available here. For queries, comments or corrections related to the database, please contact Phil at

Animal abuse

Animal testing

Animal 'welfare'


'Companion' animals





Food consumption

Food symbolism



Human health


Law & regulation


Meat & dairy




Social research





We are very grateful to the staff and volunteers of The Vegan Society for allowing us access to their library and for assisting with compiling an archive of The Vegan magazine. Without their help and patience this bibliography would have been of far more modest scope.


Cataloguing is ongoing and we apologize for the regrettably inevitable omission of some important sources to date. Please contact us to let us know about a reference that you think we should include, if you spot an error we've made, or if you think we've made a mistake in our cataloguing or use of keywords. We are very grateful for assitance we have so far received with improving the bibliography and welcome continued suggestions for improvements. Future updates will be confirmed on the home and news pages.

Rationale for keywords & phrases

Activism: advocacy or advice on vegan or pro-animal campaigning. Includes sources that are published or explicitly endorsed by organisations that campaign in these areas.

Aesthetics: research on aesthetic preferences for plant foods and / or dislikes for animal foods. Also includes artistic expressions of the aesthetics of food.

Animal abuse: sources that deal with animals being subjected to violence, confinement or other forms of exploitation. Includes some material that advocates animal exploitation, such as guides for animal 'farmers'. This has been done so that such information can be subjected to critique. Some sources are not necessarily linked to food and diet, because we are concerned to expose and criticize all forms of abuse of animals.

Animal testing: vivisection and all other forms of experimentation and research conducted on animals for the supposed benefit of humans. Vegatopia does not knowingly cite references that legitimate animal testing, and therefore follows current Vegan Society policy, “… of not referring to animal experiments in such a way as to lend them any credibility or acceptability…”

Animal 'welfare': advocacy or discussions of improving animal 'welfare'. Although improving the 'welfare' of exploited animals does not excuse or legitimate their continued exploitation, we recognise that welfarist approaches are of historical importance in the animals' movement and of interest for analysis.

Biography: life stories of figures in the animal movement.

'Companion' animals: sources on affective relationships between humans and nonhuman animals. The term 'companion' is in quotation marks to highlight that the nonhuman animals involved in these relationships do not usually have a choice as to whether or not to enter into or maintain the relationship – they have been bred, purchased or otherwise selected by the humans involved. The term 'companions' suggests a degree of reciprocity that is not warranted. However, we recognize the responsibility to care as best as possible for all nonhuman animals already in relationships with humans. We therefore include sources that advocate improved care for 'companion' animals, especially those that advocate disconnecting animal farming from the 'pet' food industry.

Cookbook: vegan recipes, includes sources that contain some recipes while being mostly concerned with other topics. We acknowledge that this is an imperfect label for sources dealing with raw food preparation, which are also included here. Some sources may include recipes for non-vegan foods (for instance vegetarian cookbooks), usually in the case of older sources that were unusual for their time for including any vegan recipes.

'Entertainment' animals: animals falsely imprisoned in zoos or circuses, used or represented as a spectacle in the media or in sports, and so on. The quotation marks indicate that it is unacceptable for nonhuman animals to be used for the purpose of human 'entertainment'.

Environmentalism: environmental arguments relating to food, including the environmental problems associated with animal 'farming' and the advantages of veganism.

Farming: exclusively animal 'farming' for the purposes of the Vegatopia bibliography. Vegatopia considers animal 'farming' to be a euphemism for enslavement. The placing of 'farming' in quotation marks therefore indicates our refusal of the beneficent connotations of farming in commonsense understandings of the term. We have prioritized anti-animal-'farming' sources, but also included here are pro-animal farming sources – as for the category of animal abuse, this has been done so that such information can be subjected to critique. For sources on producing plant foods, see horticulture.

Feminism: sources which address the intersections between feminism, nonhuman animal rights and / or veg*nism. Includes material from an ecofeminist perspective and also discussions of the links between the abuse of nonhuman animals and the gendered abuse of women and children.

Fiction: novels or short stories with themes relevant to veganism and / or animal liberation.

Food consumption: the human consumption of food in various contexts, including food preparation, nutrition, health scares, guides to eating out or food and travel – everything that falls outside the scope of the cookbook keyword.

Food symbolism: the cultural meanings of food, such as the relative status of plant-based versus nonhuman animal-based foods.

History: the history of vegetarianism and veganism, or the animals' movement.

Horticulture: gardening or large-scale growing of plant foods, as well as foraging for wild plant foods.

Human health: research on human nutrition, the advantages of plant-based diets, the disadvantages of animal-based diets. Excludes sources that are based on experiments with nonhuman animals.

Interlocutor: arguments against veganism and / or defending the exploitation of nonhuman animals, cross referenced with sources that refute them, again, for the purposes of critique.

Law & regulation: the legal and / or regulatory rights of nonhuman animals and vegans.

Lifestyle: the practicalities of veganism, such as finding vegan foods and other goods.

Meat & dairy: the human production or consumption of meat (which we assume to include the bodies or body parts of fishes and other animals who live in the sea) & dairy products. Includes some pro-meat & dairy sources, once more in order to expose the discursive foundations of this form of nonhuman animal abuse.

Philosophy: philosophical discussions of veganism and associated issues (such as different arguments against the exploitation of nonhuman animals), as distinct from social research.

Poetry: pro-animal and vegan poetry.

Slaughter: the slaughter of nonhuman animals for human food or any other purpose.

Social research: sociological or psychological research with vegans. Often vegans appear as a subset of vegetarians, or are absent except by implication or extension of the data that pertains to vegetarians.

Spiritual: religious or spiritual arguments in support of veganism and /or otherwise opposed to the exploitation of nonhuman animals.

Veganism: sources that either explicitly discuss veganism, or contain relevant information or ideas expressed in another context.

Vegetarianism: some sources deal with vegetarianism but not veganism. This keyword therefore indicates sources that explicitly discuss vegetarianism. As in the case of social research, material is also often of relevance to veganism by implication or extension.